We ended last time at the Noahic Covenant, found in Genesis 6:17-22, 8:20-22, and 9:1-17. Placing this somewhat in historical context, the in flood:
God poured out total and absolute judgment on the seed of Satan and bestowed free and unmerited grace on the seed of Eve, as represented in Noah and his
family (Gen. 3:15). (755)
(1) It emphasizes the close interrelation of the Noahic Covenant and the Edenic Covenant, i.e., God’s covenant with Adam before the Fall, by including a renewal of the provisions of the earlier covenant, viz, the creation mandates of marriage, procreation, work, dominion (Gen. 1:24, 25, 28 ,30; 6:20; 8:17; 9:1, 2, 7). ...
(2) It emphasizes the particularity of God’s redemptive grace (Gen.6:8). ...
(3) It emphasizes God’s intention to deal with families in His covenant (6:18; 7:1, 7, 13, 23; 8:16,18; 9:9, 12). ...
(4) It may be described as a “covenant of preservation” (8:20–22), because in
this covenant, God binds Himself to preserve the earth, His order for creation and human society, and history until the end of time, when God has consummated His purpose of redemption.
(5) It possesses a distinctively universalistic aspect (9:10); in that, not only man, but the entire universe will experience ultimate salvation from the curse of sin. ...
(6) The sign of this covenant is the rainbow, emphasizing that it is a covenant of grace.
(7) This covenant bond and its promises are founded, not on human merit or achievement, but on the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ (8:20–22). (755-756)
In Genesis 8:20–22 we see the divine establishment of a new world order based on the atonement of Christ. God knows that man’s sin-problem will never be cured by judgment (6:5–7). Something more is needed—redemption. The promises and fulfillment of God’s covenant with Noah based on Christ’s atonement provide the answer to human sin. (756)
This covenant has been called a covenant of preservation, because in it, God commits Himself to maintain the historical context for the realization of all the purposes of redemption in Christ. (756)
First, we are given God’s institution for the propagation of life: the godly family. ...
Second, we are given God’s institution for the protection of life: godly civil government (9:5, 6). ...
Third, in Genesis 9:1–4, we are given God’s institution for the sustenance and enhancement of life: godly work under the dominion mandate (Gen. 1:28). (757-758)
God vows to maintain the historical context in order to accomplish redemption in
Christ for all those He intends to save. (759)
The Abrahamic Covenant is the root and core of the rest of Biblical revelation, of the gospel of Christ, and of all Christian theology. It is the key to the entire history of redemption. (761)
The establishment of this covenant began with God’s sovereign and gracious call to Abraham to worship and serve Him (Gen. 12:1–3;22:2). God’s call to Abraham was the act that brought Abraham to God and that brought him into the Covenant of Grace. (761)
This call of God bound Abraham to Himself in an intimate, vital and eternal union of communion and friendship (Gen. 17:1). Jesus’ call to His disciples has the same effect (Matt. 10:37–39; 16:24–26). (761)
"All the elements included in the call to Abraham were operative in the call issued by Jesus....The God who revealed himself to Abraham is the God who was in
Christ. The promises given to Abraham were the promises God perfected in Christ. In issuing his call, as in other elements in his ministry, Jesus was both following and bringing to perfect expression the pattern God had set in the Abrahamic Covenant." 107 Theophilus J. Herter, The Abrahamic Covenant in the Gospels (Cherry Hill, NJ: Mack Publishing Co.,  1972), 91. (761-762)
God called Abraham to break all ties with culture, family and friends. God wanted Abraham to realize that salvation is not something that springs from within human possibilities....To bring this out clearly and decisively is the reason behind God’s command to Abraham to separate himself from everything and everyone. (762)
The Abrahamic Covenant is a true covenant, i.e., “a bond in blood sovereignly administered.”110 God chose its participants, and its contents were sovereignly imposed by Him (Gen. 12:1–3). 110. Robertson, The Christ of the Covenants, 4. (762)
As we have seen, all the Biblical covenants are organically related. The ABRAHAMIC Covenant aims at the restoration of the “land,” i.e., earth, and the replenishing of the earth with a godly “seed,” whereby the original dominion mandate of the EDENIC Covenant can be carried out (Gen. 1:28). The “seed” promise and “blessing” promise of the Abrahamic Covenant (Gen. 12:1–3) advances the promise of the conquest of evil in the ADAMIC Covenant (Gen. 3:14–15). Its sign of circumcision (Gen. 17:7–14) points to the deadly pollution caused by sin and the impossibility of salvation by human birth. As did the NOAHIC Covenant (Gen. 6–9) the Abrahamic Covenant emphasizes the centrality of family (Gen.17:7) and the particularity of election with a view to universal implications (Gen. 12:1–3). Its concern is the possession and godly reconstruction of life on the entire earth (Rom. 4:13). Later in Biblical history, the MOSAIC Covenant (Ex. 19–24) is rooted in and builds upon the Abrahamic Covenant (Ex. 6:1–8; Gal. 3:17–29; Deut. 1:1–11); as does the DAVIDIC Covenant (2 Sam. 7:8; 23:5). And the New Covenant in Christ is the supreme fulfillment of the Abrahamic Covenant (Luke 1:50, 72; Gal. 3:8; Acts 2:14; 13:32–37; 26:6–7; Rom. 4). (763)
The participants, or parties, in the Abrahamic Covenant are Jehovah (15:7) the “Almighty God,” (17:1), and Abraham and his “seed” (12:2; 17:7). (763)
In the Abrahamic Covenant, God appears not only as our Creator and Lord, but also as our Redeemer and Father. (764)
The other party in this covenant is Abraham and his “seed” (Gen. 12:2; 17:7). Who is Abraham’s promised “seed?” (764)
First, the “seed” is Jesus Christ, as the last Adam, the head of the new (regenerate) humanity (Rom. 5:12–21; 2 Cor. 5:17–21; 1 Cor. 15:45, 47). (764)
Second, the “seed” are those who belong to Christ by faith: “Therefore, be sure that it is those who are of faith that are sons of Abraham….And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s offspring, heirs according to promise” (Gal. 3:7, 29). (765)
The implications of this truth are important. (1) Becoming a Christian involves entering into the Biblical heritage and religion of Abraham (Rom. 11). (2) The covenants of promise of the Old Testament with all their promises and moral laws belong to all Abraham’s seed, i.e., to all those who belong to Christ by faith, regardless of ethnic background. (3) The Christian Church is the true Israel, the New Israel, “the Israel of God” (Rom. 2:29; Gal. 6:16). As Christians we must read the Old Testament prophets knowing that their message is addressed to us who believe in Jesus. (4) Believer in Jesus, the whole Bible is for you! Do not let anyone rob you of a single verse of the Bible. (766)
Third, the “seed” is to be found in the descendants of believers: “And I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your descendants after you throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and to your descendants after you” (Gen. 17:7). (766)
Children of believers were always included as participants in “the covenants of promise.”...It is the fundamental law in the Bible that children are viewed as a unit with their parents. “The unique feature of the covenant as established with Abraham and his posterity is precisely laid down at this point: the descendants in all generations are to be considered heirs of the covenant as soon as their existence began.” 114. Dwight H. Small, The Biblical Basis for Infant Baptism (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House,  1968), 41 (766)
Scripture is precise and specific that children of believers are to be counted as members of God’s covenant, and therefore, are to be counted among the “seed,” unless by their lives they prove themselves apostate. Here is the evidence:
(1) God makes covenant promises to believers and their children in such a way that they both stand in the same position before God (Gen. 17:78; Deut. 30:6; Acts 2:38, 39; Acts 16:31; Psa. 112:1–2; 115:9–15; Deut. 5:1, 2).
(2) God looks upon “households” as spiritual units under one head in the Old Testament and the New Testament.
(3) God causes His covenant to continue to unfold down through the successive generations of the people of God (Ex. 10:5, 6; Deut. 29:14–15; Luke 1:50; Gen. 17:9). (768)
The promises of the Abrahamic Covenant are centrally four: (1) The promise of union and communion with God (Gen. 17:7); (2) The promise of a “seed” (Gen. 15:5); (3) The promise of a “land” (Gen. 15:18f); and (4) The promise of world-wide blessing (Gen. 12:3). Understanding these promises is essential to understanding the gospel. (770)
The book of Acts contains SPECIFIC COVENANT TERMINOLOGY. ...The God of the apostles is the God of Abraham (3:13; 7:2, 16, 17, 32; 13:26). Christ is the servant of the God of Abraham (3:13, 24–28). Christ’s resurrection rests on God’s covenant oath (2:30). The Abrahamic Covenant is quoted in 3:25. The preached gospel is rooted in the covenant promises and prophecies (8:35; 26:22; 28:23; 3:17; 3:22, 24, 25; 9:43). Acts places the emphasis on the covenant-relation of “households” to God (2:39; 11:14; 16:34). The church (ekklesia inGreek) bears the same characteristics as did Abraham: “the called ones” (15:4). Believers are to possess their promised covenant inheritance (20:32). Christ is the Covenant Lord in human flesh (3:14; 7:55;3:6; 4:12). Paul was motivated by covenant hope and by faith in covenant promise (24:14–16; 26:6; 28:20). Christians were marked by covenant faithfulness, specifically hospitality (10:23; 16:15, 34; 17:7) and obedience to covenant law (7:38; 21:20–24; 22:12; 24:25). The basis of salvation is covenant mercy (2:47; 4:33; 7:10, 46; 11:23; 13:43; 14:3; 15:11, 40; 18:27; 20:24; 20:32). Baptism serves as the covenant sign in Acts with the same place, meaning and function in the early church that circumcision had in the Abrahamic Covenant. (775)
Also in the book of Acts we see the HISTORICAL REALIZATION OF COVENANT PROMISES made to Abraham. (775)
What can we conclude from the covenantal structure and message of the book of Acts? (1) World evangelization is covenantal world mission....(2) Covenant principles still govern life in this world. (775-776)
(1) Separation from the evil of this world and consecration to God (Gen. 12:1; Rom. 12:1–2). ...(2) Worship and obedience (Ps. 2:12).
(3) Faith and repentance (Gen. 15:6). (777-778)
Circumcision was instituted by God to be a sign and seal of the highest spiritual blessings of the covenant: (1) union and communion with God (Gen. 17:10); (2) cleansing from the guilt of sin by the blood of Jesus (Rom. 4:11); and (3) cleansing from the pollution of sin by the Holy Spirit (Deut. 30:6). ...(1) It was a sign and seal of God’s gracious covenant blessings (Romans 4:11); (2) It was a means of distinguishing God’s people from the world (Ex. 12:48, Gen. 34:14); and (3) It was a public admission into the visible congregation of the Lord (Gen. 17:4). ...There were not two kinds of circumcision with two meanings, i.e., one for adults and one for children. There was one circumcision, which had the same meaning for all concerned (Rom. 4:11). ...All circumcised babies were to be viewed as “the seed of Abraham,” unless their life or special revelation showed otherwise. (779-780)
Baptism is now the sign of the covenant, because baptism is the fulfillment of circumcision. The divine command to bear and to give to the children of believers the sign of the covenant has never been annulled or abrogated anywhere in the Bible. (780)
Therefore, we must conclude the following: (1) The true, inner circumcision of the heart is accomplished by Christ and received by faith, and sealed, sacramentally, by baptism (Rom. 6:3–4; Phil. 3:3). (2) Baptism, therefore, is the sign and seal of that spiritual circumcision which has been wrought in every believer in Christ. (3) Water baptism has appropriately succeeded circumcision as the sign of the covenant. (4) Children of believers, being heirs of the covenant, have a right to baptism, as they did to circumcision in the Old Testament. (781)
First, it [Rom. 4:11] tells us that baptism, as circumcision, is nothing in and of
itself. It cannot save or bring into existence that which it signifies (Gal. 5:6). Second, baptism presupposes the existence of that which it signifies: justification by faith in Christ. Third, baptism is a sign and seal of justification by faith. ...
This means, fourthly, that baptism is God’s pledge that the blessing of Abraham is from everlasting to everlasting upon those who fear him and on their children’s children (Ps. 103:17–18). We baptize infants of believers in obedience to God’s eternal covenant and because of the solidarity of covenant relations in the family.(781)
At Mt. Sinai, Jehovah established the Mosaic Covenant with Israel, recommitting Himself to be Israel’s God forever; and Israel committed herself to be His people forever, who would faithfully trust in Him and obey His revealed will, living in fellowship with Him as the Subject of her highest loyalty and love. ...(1) The Mosaic Covenant must not be interpreted apart from Jesus Christ; and (2) Christ’s ethical teaching and redemptive work must be interpreted as consistent with the Mosaic Covenant. (783)
All Old Testament covenants have abiding validity, being fulfilled in the New Covenant in Christ (Rom. 16:20; 2 Pet. 3:5–9; Rom. 4:16f; Rom. 15:12; Acts 7:38). (783)
The Exodus came before Mt. Sinai. This one chronological fact teaches us that salvation is by grace not law, and that those who are saved by grace are given God’s Law to show them how to live as saved people. (784)
First, the Exodus-Redemption is a vivid demonstration of the motivating force behind covenant salvation: the sovereign, electing grace of God. ...
Second, the Exodus-Redemption is a vivid demonstration that the effecting force behind covenant salvation is not human ability, but Divine omnipotence. ...
Third, the Exodus-Redemption is a vivid demonstration that the basis for covenant salvation is atoning sacrifice. ...
Fourth, the Exodus-Redemption is a vivid demonstration that an integral part of covenant salvation is deliverance from the realm of sin, subjectively and objectively (Ex. 3:8f; Rom. 6:8). (784-785)
The Mosaic Covenant presupposes, is rooted in, and is an expansion of, the Abrahamic Covenant. (785)
The reasons for calling the Mosaic Covenant a covenant of grace, growing out of the Abrahamic Covenant are good ones. (1) The Bible never speaks of the Mosaic Covenant as a covenant of works as over against the Abrahamic Covenant of grace. ...(2) At Mt. Sinai, God covenanted with His people in grace and mercy, not in anger, as their Redeemer and Deliverer (Ex. 19:5; 20:2). (3) The content of the Mosaic Covenant is the content of the Abrahamic Covenant expanded (Ezek. 16:3–6; Ps. 109:21; Isa. 37:35; Lev. 26:12; Jer. 11:4; 30:22). (4) Galatians 3:17 teaches that “fidelity to the bond already contracted with Abraham and his seed, forbade the after formation of a different compact with them.”136 ...(5) The utensils of the tabernacle and the book of the testimony were sprinkled with blood (Heb. 8:18–23), to fore-signify that Christ’s blood and propitiatory sacrifice is the basis of the covenant, not our obedience to God’s Law. (6) Both moral and ritual law were in force under Abraham (Rom. 5:13,14; Gen. 17:14) (7) Christ expressly taught that Moses taught about Him (Luke 24:27; John 5:46). 136. Robert L. Dabney, Lectures in Systematic Theology, 455. (787)
The Law of the Mosaic Covenant serves the purposes of grace. It was given to a people redeemed by grace to show them how to live as God’s covenant people. (788)
The Mosaic Covenant is related organically to the totality of God’s redemptive purposes. Law is significant in all covenants prior to Moses (Gen. 3:19; 9:6). Even in the Abrahamic Covenant of promise, Abraham’s call from God demanded the total devotion of the whole of his life (Gen. 12:1; 17:1, 14). And Law is significant in all covenants that follow the Mosaic (1 Kings 2:1–4; Matt. 5:17f; Rom. 7:7, 12). (788)
In the totality of all God’s redemptive purpose, the Mosaic Covenant is an advancement beyond all that precedes it. ... Furthermore, it is less than all that follows it. (788-789)
Who were parties to the Mosaic Covenant?
The superior participant in this covenant is Jehovah (Ex. 3:13–16; 6:2–6; 34:6–7). (789)
The inferior participant in the Mosaic Covenant is Israel (Ex. 19:1f). Who is Israel? (1) A people graciously and sovereignly chosen by God...(2) A people adopted by God as His children...(3) A people redeemed by God from the bondage of sin...[and] (4) A people who are the “seed” of Abraham organically, covenantally and genealogically in the line of continued generations... (790-791)
This historical prologue recounts God’s gracious, fatherly, redemptive dealings with His covenant people, reminding us that this covenant is based on Divine redemption not on human merit. (791)
(1) God’s people are God’s property (1 Pet. 2:5f). ...(2) God’s people are a kingdom of priests (1 Pet. 2:5,9). ...
(3) God’s people are a holy nation (1 Pet. 2:5f). (791-792)
All of God’s covenants of promise demand the same response of us—a covenantal vow to keep covenant faith and covenant law—“You stand today, all of you, before the Lord your God... that you may enter the covenant with the Lord your God, and into His oath which the Lord your God is making with you today” (Deut. 29:10–12). (793)
The basis for the demand for obedience in the Mosaic Covenant is the majestic holiness of Jehovah: “By those who come near Me I will be treated as holy, and before all the people I will be honored” (Lev. 10:3). A holy God must have a holy people and this holiness must pervade the entirety of their lives. (793)
The Decalogue (the Ten Commandments) is foundational to the whole of Biblical morality. Every law, proverb, exhortation, admonition, and ethical principle in the Old and New Testaments is based on the Ten Commandments. (795)
These foundational and structural laws of the Old Testament and New Testament comprise Christian morality (Matt. 5:17f). (796)
First, the sacrificial system is a promise of redemption from sin for the people of God (Lev. 1–16; Ex. 1–12). (796)
Second, the theocratic law is the promise of sanctification to God for the people of God (Ex. 20–23; Deut. 5–27; Lev. 17–27). (797)
Third, the Tabernacle is the promise of complete reconciliation with God for His covenant people (Ex. 25–40). (801)
First then, what is the covenantal context of the Davidic Covenant?
God’s covenant with David is one of the great landmarks of history (2 Sam. 7:1–29; 1 Chron. 17:1–27; Ps. 89:1–52; Luke 1:32–33). ...“In the Davidic Covenant God’s purposes to redeem a people to himself reach their climactic stage of realization so far as the Old Testament is concerned.” 153. Robertson, The Christ of the Covenants, 229 (803)
The Davidic Covenant grows out of and is an advanced stage of the Abrahamic Covenant. (804)
Abraham was promised that “kings shall come out of you” (Gen. 17:6), and the Davidic Covenant is the realization of that promise (2 Sam. 7:12). The allusions to the Abrahamic Covenant in 2 Samuel 7 include: (1) The promise to David of a “great name” (7:9b; Gen. 12:2); (2) The promise to establish Israel in a “place” (7:10; Gen. 15:18; Deut. 11:24f); (3) The promise of a “seed” (7:12b; Gen. 17:7–10); (4) The promise of union and communion with God (7:23, 24; Gen. 17:7, 8). (804)
Therefore, we can conclude that the Abrahamic-Mosaic-Davidic Covenant is one covenant in several administrations. It is not selfcontradictory in any of its principles, relations, laws, foundation, definitions or goals. IT IS A COVENANT OF SOVEREIGN GRACE. (805)
The Lord God (Adonai Yahweh) (7:19, 20, 28, 29), and the house (seed) of David (7:11, 12, 16, 19, 25–29). (806)
Three divine promises are at the heart of the Davidic Covenant: (1) a permanent “dwelling-place” for Jehovah on earth (7:11, 13); (2) an eternal and universal kingdom of Jehovah on earth (7:16); and (3) a divine-human Messianic King (7:12). (808)
First, God promises David A PERMANENT “DWELLING PLACE” FOR JEHOVAH ON EARTH (7:11, 13). This has immediate reference to the Temple in Jerusalem built by King Solomon, David’s son and successor, which was a symbol and pledge of the presence of Jehovah with His people. (808)
This Davidic Covenant, then, has one three-fold fulfillment: Christ is God’s dwelling-place on earth. The Church, as Christ’s body, is God’s home on earth. And we, as individual believers, are the temples of God’s Spirit. (809)
Second, God promises David AN ETERNAL AND UNIVERSAL KINGDOM OF GOD ON EARTH (7:16). ...It is obvious that this prophecy points beyond the United Kingdom and has strong Messianic implications (7:13). ...The New Testament clearly identifies this Davidic promise with Christ’s mediatorial, redemptive
Third, God promises David A DIVINE-HUMAN MESSIANIC KING (7:12). The promised personification of the eternal and universal rule of God in Genesis 49:10 is even more clearly focused in one person in 2 Samuel 7:12—in the Messiah. (810)
A major theme in the New Testament is that Jesus Christ is the royal seed of the Davidic dynasty...And what is more, JESUS IS THE SON OF DAVID AND THE SON OF GOD (2 Sam. 7:14). (810)
No one can fully appreciate the influence of the Davidic Covenant on the Old Testament without going through the Old Testament “with an ear open for the many echoes which this one clear voice has awakened in the souls of hoping, believing men of Israel.”161 It not only shapes the message of the later books, it also provides a framework for the history of Israel that follows it. And this continuity of covenant promise and of a covenant framework reveal the faithfulness of God to David. 161. James Oscar Boyd, “Echoes of the Covenant with David,” Princeton Theological Review (Princeton, NJ: Vol. XXV, 1927), 587. (811)
From this information we can draw three important conclusions. (1) The Lord God’s prophetic and covenantal word not only predicts the future, it determines the future....(2) God’s covenant is concerned with actual and concrete historical realities...(3) “This long history of judgmental realization on the basis of God’s covenant word must be balanced by focusing equal attention on the faithful maintenance of the Davidic line through the history.” 165. Robertson, The Christ of the Covenants, 268–69 (813)
The life, ministry and gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ can be defined in terms of the Davidic Covenant. Jesus is clearly identified as the Son of David (Mark 10:46–52; 11:9–10; 12:35–40). (813)